Nikah Muta


Nikah Mut’a (temporary marriage) is it allowed by the Qur’an?

Q. What is the Quranic view on permission of Nikah Mut’a which is a temporary marriage entered for a fixed period of time for the purpose of physical pleasure and in which the partners do not inherit from each other?

A. The Qur’an does not permit that sexual urges should be fulfilled by temporary means. It says that people who do not posses the means to get married should remain chaste, as indicated by the following verse:

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“And let those who do not find the means to marry keep chaste until Allah makes them free from want out of His grace.” (24:33)

Sex is a controllable urge as it is triggered off through our thoughts. This is the reason that believers are enjoined to remain celibate at certain times, e.g. while fasting and during the days of the Hajj or while in state of Ihraam (pilgrim garb). If sex were not controllable, then Allah, who created us, and who knows man’s nature would never demand of us to remain celibate at specific times. Unlike food which no matter how less you try to think about, will over come you as it is a vital need, but sex on the other hand is not like food that if we do not have it we may then acquire a physical deficiency.

People are ordered to keep themselves chaste until marriage. There is no other temporary means to fulfill this urge, says the Quran, while on the other hand we see that in case of food, when the situation is of a grievous nature and there is no access to Halaal (permissible) food, then the Quran says in such a situation, even Haraam (prohibited) food can be consumed:

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“..But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], then indeed, your Lord is Forgiving and Merciful.” 6:145

But in the case of sex, we do not find any recommendation for its gratification by a means other than Nikah (marriage), and those who cannot marry are ordered to keep chaste until their circumstances change. The purpose of sex according to Quran is not fulfillment of lust or satisfaction of desires only but it goes far beyond that. Like food, sex is not an end in itself, but it is a means to an end, i.e. procreation of the human species. Just like food is not consumed only for the sake of taste but acquisition of energy is the principle aim for its consumption, similarly sex is not an end in itself but is a means for another higher purpose. The Qur’an enjoins that believers who posses resources to support a family, should establish a permanent relationship of marriage, and assigns numerous rights related to such a bond. No passage of the Qur’an gives the slightest indication of the legitimacy of a temporary bond between couples entered into solely for physical pleasure.

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“And how could you take it (back) while you have gone in unto each other, and they (your wives) have taken from you a firm and strong covenant?” 4:21

In above, the words Meethaqan ghaleeza lit. “strong covenant” rule out the notion of a marriage being a temporary bond but indicate it to be one entered into for a permanent basis. Moreover according to Qur’an, both husband and wife are to inherit from each other, thereby indicating that Nikah is a lifetime commitment and not a temporary affair:

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“And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from Allah , and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing.” 4:12

As the Qur’an clearly commands those not having the means to get married to keep chaste, and has indicated that marriage is a strong bond between a husband and wife which results in the creation of rights of inheritance  therefore the notion of a temporary marriage for a fixed period of time solely for sexual gratification in which partners do not inherit from each other is against Qur’anic guidelines. In view of this, Nikah Mut’a is not permissible for a believer in Qur’an.

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Sex Slaves


THE ATTACK ON MUSLIMS, YOUR RELIGION ENJOINS SEXUAL SLAVERY

It is the claim of critics that Islam allows sexual relations with slave girls. To lend credence to this claim they allude to certain translations of Qur’anic verses, such as: “… those more favoured are not going to throw back their gifts to those whom their right hands possess…” (16:71 Yusuf Ali) and “Also (prohibited are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess..” (4:24 Yusuf Ali) and by pointing to the mention of “those whom your right hands possess” suggest that the expression refers to slaves, thereby sex with slave girls is allowed. But does the original Arabic expression Malakat Aymanikum, commonly rendered in most English translations of the Qur’an as those whom your rights hands possess, really refer to slave girls? This is what needs to be seen. And for this we need to study and explore the Qur’an in detail before conceding to the argument.

WHAT IS THE ARABIC WORD FOR SLAVE?

The Arabic term for slave is Abd for the masculine gender and Ammah for the feminine, and whenever the Qur’an speaks of slaves, it is these terms which are mentioned:

“And if ye are in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto OUR SLAVE (Arabic: AABDINAA)..” 2:23 Pickthal

And when MY SLAVES (ARABIC: IBAADI) ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near..” 2:186 Muhsin Khan

We clearly see in the verses cited above that Abd occurs for “slave” in its various derivative forms and with suffixes and pronouns. 2:221 demonstrates the feminine form Ammah along with the masculine, confirming the usage even further:

“And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing SLAVE WOMAN (ARABIC: AMMAH) is better than a polytheist, even though she might please you. And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing SLAVE (ARABIC: ABD) is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you…” 2:221 Saheeh International

Abd and Ammah are the terms for slaves in the Qur’an, on the other hand Qur’anic inflection reveals that the compound Arabic expression Aymanikum which is usually rendered as ‘those whom your right hands posses’, is not for slaves under the possession of the right hand of the slave owner, but refers to the oaths and covenants that people have pledged to undertake. Malakat Aymanikum categorizes those women (and men) who are under the custody and protection of believers by way of a written pledge or agreement. This is absolutely clear in Qur’anic inflection. One need not be an expert in Arabic, but a mere word search can reveal this clear phenomenon:

“Allah does not call you to account for what is vain in YOUR OATHS (ARABIC: AYMANI-KUM), but He calls you to account for the making of deliberate oaths (ARABIC: AYMAN)…..” 5.89 Shakir

“…..and as to THOSE WITH WHOM YOUR RIGHTS HANDS (ARABIC: AYMAN) HAVE RATIFIED AGREEMENTS, give them their portion; surely Allah is a witness over all things. 4.33 Shakir

It should be noted that in above the same term Ayman which is usually cited to insinuate slavery has been used. Can we say that the term means slaves by exploring its inflection in other Qur’anic passages and checking its meaning in Arabic lexicons? Certainly not. Linguistically Ayman is the plural form of Yameen (lit. “right” – directional as well as conceptual). An oath and covenant is also called Yameen as it involves swearing by the (symbolic) ‘right hand’, and it is in this shade of meaning that the word and its plural form occur in the Qur’an. (See Lanes Arabic English Lexicon, pp 3064. Also Qur’an 5.89, 5.108, 16.91, 9.12.)

As the verses cited by critics refer to Malakat Aymanikum (lit. those under rightful authority [of believers] i.e. those under the protection of oath of believers), and not about Ibaad or Aammaat i.e. male or female slaves, the suggestion that these passages ratify slavery and concubinage is invalid.

MARRIAGE WITH MALAKAT AYMANIKUM

With Malakat Aymanikum category of women Nikah [lit., “marriage”], is mandated in the Qur’an and not sex outside of it! we can read this very clearly:

“If any of you have not the means wherewith to wed Al Muhsanaat [lit,. “fortified women”], they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess: And Allah hath full knowledge about your faith. Ye are one from another: Wed them with the leave of their Ahl [lit., “family”], and give them their dowers, according to what is reasonable: They should be chaste, not lustful, nor taking paramours: when they are taken in wedlock, if they fall into shame, their punishment is half that for Muhsanaat. This (permission) is for those among you who fear sin; but it is better for you that ye practise self-restraint. And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” 4:25

The command fankihoohunna-bi-ithni ahlihinna [lit., “so marry them with the permission of their family”] shows that Nikah is commanded with Malakat Aymanikum, and not concubinage, as it is wrongly suggested by many. Also we see that the term Muhsanaat (lit., “fortified women”) in above verse which is often wrongly translated as “free believing women” which again is suggestive of slavery, is in fact from the Arabic word Hisn or “a fort”, a term that signifies fortification in the physical as well as in the sense of being protected and honoured. Fortified women, would thus be, those who are having a good and protective upbringing in a morally strong household than an upbringing in a sinful environment. Malakat Aymanikum on the other hand include women who were formerly nonbelievers, but have abandoned their sinful past and converted to Islam, by virtue, their non Muslim husbands are no longer lawful for them. When such female converts migrate to the community of believers living in their custody and protection, then Muslim men can marry such emigrant women once the women have dissolved their marriages with their former husbands:

“O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful [wives] for them, nor are they lawful [husbands] for them. But give the disbelievers what they have spent. And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their due compensation. And hold not to marriage bonds with disbelieving women, but ask for what you have spent and let them ask for what they have spent. That is the judgement of Allah ; He judges between you. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.” Sahih International 60:10

Thus the command “..And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their due compensation…” shows that a believer may marry such a woman, who was formerly a nonbeliever but has now converted to Islam and migrated to the Muslim community. If she leaves her husband and comes in the custody of community of believers she falls in the category of those under the rightful authority of believers. Believers can, if they wish marry such emigrants who were previously married provided they pay their former husbands some amount for the dissolution of their marriage. References in Sura Nisa about “those under your right hands possession” as per contemporary interpretation, are not for slave-girls, but for Muslim converts who have migrated in Imaan (belief) and to the custody and protection of believers and have left their unbelieving husbands.

THE QUR’AN ALLOWS ONLY NIKAH FOR SEXUAL RELATIONS, THUS CONCUBINAGE IS RULED OUT

Here we stress that only Nikah is the permissible manner of sexual gratification in the Qur’an. Apart from Nikah, no other method is endorsed nor prescribed. Zinaa (fornication and adultery) is a very serious matter in the Qur’an whose repeated offender is destined for hell-fire according to 25:68-71:

“And those who do not invoke with Allah another deity or kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed], except by right, and do not commit Zinaa [unlawful sexual intercourse]. And whoever should do that will meet a penalty.” 25:68

“Multiplied for him is the punishment on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein humiliated” 25:69

“Except for those who repent, believe and do righteous work. For them Allah will replace their evil deeds with good. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.” 25:70

It is clear from the Qur’an that having sex with anyone outside of marriage is tantamount to Zinaa and is a flagrant violation of Qur’anic law which qualifies one to sure shot punishment on the day of judgement, unless one repents of it in his or her lifetime and amends behavior  Sexual slavery and concubinage in which sexual relations are outside of the bond of marriage, is thus prohibited for believers.

Plural Marriages: The Muslim Welfare System


Introduction

Imagine a country devastated by war. Men of fighting age are killed, leaving behind women and orphans. State resources have been depleted. There is poverty and misery everywhere. Where lies the relief for the weak and vulnerable, the women, children, and the elderly? Forget about the state. Islam has what no state system of the world can ever deliver. Plural marriages. Yes. Islam allows polygamy i.e. plural marriages. Polygyny is where a man has plural wives, while polyandry is where a woman has more than one husband. Both fall under the term polygamy. When Islam allows polygamy, then it is actually polygyny that is permitted. In other words, a Muslim man may have more than one wife at the same time, or up to four, to be exact.

Plural marriages are no laughing matter, but actually a relief for society of its social hardships and burdens if done properly and in the spirit of the Qur’an.  Marriage according to the Quran, is between two consenting adults, who on account of their belief and circumstances decide to live as husband and wife. Purpose of marriage is to find love, tranquillity and fulfilment and to procreate and live as a family. Monogamy is the norm in the Qur’an, but under extenuating circumstances, polygyny is recommended. We read: 

And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those your right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice]. (4:3) Saheeh International

The words “..But if you fear that you will not be just, then [only] one..” indicate that polygny is conditional to justice. If a man cannot treat wives equitably, then he is ordered to be monogamous.

Besides as it is a man’s duty to support his wife, therefore polygyny is conditional upon a man’s economic status. Only if he can afford to marry more than one woman, should he do so. So its not for everyone, but for special occasions only.

Polygyny in Quran is not for fulfilling the lustful intentions of men, but to provide shelter & support to destitute women. Its benefits are numerous. Some are listed here:

  1. Polygyny enables wealth creation. As the members in a household increase, aggregate earning of family increases.
  2. Polygyny reduces poverty. A wealthy man will marry poor women thus they get food and shelter.
  3. Polygyny creates wealth succession. If a penniless poor woman stays single all her life and dies, then she leaves no inheritance but if a man marries her then through Quranic law of inheritance, she has a right in her husbands property, which then goes to her children or siblings after her demise. This way wealth is not only created but also passed on.
  4. Polygyny saves from perversion. It is a scientific fact that men due to testosterone have a higher sex drive than women.Instead of meeting their needs illicitly, polygyny allows men to fulfill within the bond of marriage. On the other hand poverty stricken women are also saved from prostitution.
  5. Polygyny provides childcare and permits women to go to work. A sister wife can look after the kids, while other wives work.
  6. Polygyny provides companionship social, economic and psychological support is provided to sister wives through their joint family.
  7. Polygyny provides natural support system for the elderly as Quran orders believers to financially support their elderly parents.Thus children from polygynous marriages will support their elderly parents and not leave them at the mercy of state pension.
  8. Polygyny maintains social equilibrium in society. Because in society majority are poor and minority are rich. Polygyny applies only to the rich, as Quran makes it a prerequisite on a man to financially support a woman he wishes to marry otherwise he should be monogamous or keep himself chaste until he has the means to marry.

Conclusion

Through this Quranic law, the rich minority is able to share wealth as well as emotional support with the vast poorer majority. Through plural marriages there is equity and just distribution of wealth, increased productivity by more working members in household, increase in manpower by larger families, reduced crime because of harnessing male testosterone and aggression. A young workforce brought by larger families and childcare provided by sister wives and natural elderly care by children when they grow up.

I do acknowledge that there are wrong doings with this practice as well, but in this case I am highlighting the practical benefits of plural marriage if it is done in the light of Qur’anic guidance. We should not cite the example of people failing in relationships when their judgements are of their own, and not from the Qur’an.

Thus I would argue that polygyny is beneficial for society. Due to these facts, observations, I rest my case and conclude that Quranic law of polygyny which involves wealthy men to marry from poor and destitute orphaned women whom they are duty bound to financially support and share in wealth and love has immense benefits for society in all times. It is the duty of Muslims to promote the correct concept and purpose of marriage and the benefits this commandment of Allah has for society at large. How true is the Qur’an:

And We send down of the Qur’an that which is healing and mercy for the believers, but it does not increase the wrongdoers except in loss. (17:82) Saheeh International

WOULD YOU LIKE TO DISCUSS THE ABOVE OR ANY OTHER TOPIC WITH THE AUTHOR THROUGH LIVE CHAT? SCHEDULE A MEETING USING THIS FORM.